[Note] Imperceptibility in Screen-Camera Communication

比较总结以下几篇paper在降低对人眼感知的刺激方面的具体实现。

This note is about comparison among these paper in imperceptibility. I.e., we focus on the modulation part of the system design in each paper, neither the decoding or encoding part.

  • ImplicitCode Reading between Lines: High-rate, Non-intrusive Visual Codes within Regular Videos via ImplicitCode
  • ChromaCode ChromaCode: A Fully Imperceptible Screen-Camera Communication System
  • InFrame++ InFrame++: Achieve Simultaneous Screen-Human Viewing and Hidden Screen-Camera Communication
  • TextureCode High–Rate Flicker–Free Screen–Camera Communication with Spatially Adaptive Embedding
  • HiLight Real-Time Screen-Camera Communication Behind Any Scene
  • Kaleido Kaleido: You Can Watch It But Cannot Record It

ImplicitCode

  • Bit 0: original frame (divided to two same frames)
  • Bit 1: complement frames
    • colororiginal × (1 − β)
  • colororiginal × (1 + β)
  • Select color translusency level β by the color intensity – high intensity – low translucency
  • Smooth the block border
  • [Environment] 120 Hz

ChromaCode

  • Manipulate lightness adaptively and account for both original lightness and texture
  • Grey-level co-occurrence matrix based contrast estimator
  • Bit 1: ±ΔL2(i, j) , bit 0: ΔL2(i, j)
  • [Environment] 120 fps

InFrame++

  • Spatial and temporal complement frames
  • Pixel – cell (complement) – block – segment
  • Transitional frames
  • [Environment] 120 FPS

TextureCode

  • Embed bits into textured part
  • Texture analysis: texton analysis & pixel-based texture analysis
  • Separate blocks with some distance
  • Manchester – brighter frame & darker frame
  • +2 & -3
  • Separate encoded region & align border of encoded region to existing edges in the original frame
  • Hybrid: use HiLight scheme in some regions
  • [Environment] 120 Hz transmitter, 30 fps raw video – 4 frames for embed messages

HiLight

  • Leverage alpha channel – drives down encoding delay
  • Binary Frequency Shift Keying
  • Bit 0 20 Hz over six frames
  • Bit 1 30 Hz over six frames
  • [Environment] 60/120 fps

Kaleido

  • Chromatic Frame Decomposition
  • Illuminance Frame Pollution
  • Embrace Spatial Deformation – randomize the color
  • [Environment] raw video: 24/30 fps, 120 Hz display device

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